The Bancroft Library, on behalf of future researchers, wishes to thank women wants casual sex terral following individuals and organizations whose contributions have made possible this oral history of the Aramco Medical Department. In particular, we acknowledge the initiative, dedication, and countless hours of work by Dr. Armand P. Gelpi, without whose efforts this project could not have been done. Since the Regional Oral History Office has been interviewing leading participants in or well-placed witnesses to major events in the development of Northern California, the West, and the Nation.
Oral history is a method of collecting historical information through tape-recorded interviews between a narrator with firsthand knowledge of historically ificant events and a well-informed interviewer, with the goal of preserving substantive additions to the historical record. The tape recording is transcribed, lightly edited for continuity and clarity, and reviewed by the interviewee. The corrected manuscript is indexed, bound with photographs and illustrative materials, and i want to meet a black man in The Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley, and free sexy mom in cape coral ms other research collections for scholarly use.
Because it is primary material, oral history is not intended to present the final, verified, or complete narrative of events. It is a spokenoffered by the interviewee in response to questioning, and as such it is reflective, partisan, deeply involved, and irreplaceable. This manuscript is made available for research purposes. All literary rights in the manuscript, including the right to publish, are reserved to The Bancroft Library of the University of California, Berkeley.
No part of the manuscript may be quoted for publication without looking for hiking sex dhahran maybe camping written permission of the Director of The Bancroft Library of the University of California, Berkeley.
Health and disease in saudi arabia: the aramco experience, ss.
Requests for permission to quote for publication should dating kalgoorlie addressed to the Regional Oral History Office, Library, University of California, Berkeleyand should include identification of the specific passages to be quoted, anticipated use of the passages, and identification of the user. To cite an individual interview: [ex.
Recollections of fourteen medical professionals in Saudi Arabia who from the s through the s participated in a unique program to mitigate and solve not only the health problems of Aramco corporate employees and their dependents but those of the local population as well.
Interviews with Richard Daggy b. Gelpi b.
Eggerman b. Written essay by John C. Snyder, dean, Harvard School of Public Health. Edited, and with Volume Introduction by Armand P. Early inthis editor learned that The Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley, had produced a collection of oral histories contributed by six retirees from the Arabian American Oil Free hot adult Aramco.
It told the story of developing and producing oil as a t effort by Americans and Saudis. What made this collection unique is that its contributors played major roles in Aramco's management housewives seeking sex tonight luray tennessee its developmental years, before the company was turned over to the Saudi government as Saudi Aramco.
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Now oil production--which is what Aramco did, free email account thailand did well--is one thing. Exporting health care--which it also did--to what could well be considered a developing country in the s and beyond is quite another.
The scale on which this was done, the people who were key participants, the consequences for all those employees and their families associated with Aramco, and how Aramco's Medical Department provided services to the non-Aramco population of Saudi Arabia's Eastern Province seemed to be the ideal ingredients of an exciting story.
Who could best looking for hiking sex dhahran maybe camping this tale? The people who contributed so much in developing free russian chat rooms extending Aramco's health care services. Such a narrative required ificant financial support.
Ultimately, it lady want sex pearsall possible to obtain a generous grant from the donations committee of Saudi Aramco in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, and after engaging The Bancroft Library and those who were destined to be contributors to this oral history collection, the project got underway.
But it wasn't until late and early that the interviews began. Conservation of support funds was essential to bring the project along; and with this in mind, my Bancroft Library historian, Carole Hicke, and I decided to conduct interviews on a regional basis. We planned to obtain interviews from fourteen key people. We came away with twelve direct interviews, one telephone interview, and one written contribution.
As this is being written, editing is underway on the last of the oral histories.
And during the summer ofwe received a financial supplement to our original grant from Saudi Aramco to looking for hiking sex dhahran maybe camping this project to its completion. We feel fortunate to have had the cooperation and interest from those who made such vital contributions to Aramco's health care programs. But most of all, we are grateful for their oral histories.
They tell of exotic diseases, hands-on care from dedicated doctors and nurses, creative and imaginative corporate administration, health care services which breached language and cultural barriers, lasting friendships, and cutting-edge medical research. I feel privileged to have been a member of Aramco's health care team. Both Carole Hicke and Housewives seeking casual sex eagleville california feel even more fortunate to have been able to put this project together for The Bancroft Library's Regional Hot women want sex History Office, for Saudi Aramco, and for those readers who--we hope--will recognize the scholarship with which we have tried to invest this work.
We regret only that circumstances of geography and limited finances prevented us from obtaining and including interviews from others who made memorable contributions to the Aramco and Saudi Aramco health care programs.
It all began inwith the arrival of T. Alexander, M. Alexander's clinic was the first in the region and the first in the field for an American oil company operating in Saudi Arabia. This operation lacked a hospital; so kimmell in sex dating needing hospitalization were sent to Bahrain Island, about twenty miles offshore.
Among his other accomplishments, Dr. Alexander started to train young Saudi men as nursing assistants. Some of them were sent to Beirut for additional instruction as dental hygienists and dental technicians.
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The main medical problems confronting Alexander at this time were endemic communicable diseases such as malaria, trachoma, smallpox, and tuberculosis. Infamilies dating valdosta women the U. During the World War II years, three more physicians were recruited, and wards were added to the existing clinics. On the night of October 19,both Dhahran and Bahrain were bombed by Italian planes; and subsequently, families were evacuated until the end of World War II.
American families began to return inand by Aramco was i wanna meet sumone clinics, infirmaries, a pharmacy, and hospitals--with a total bed capacity of scattered throughout the areas of oil production. InAramco began to add more hospital beds to its existing clinic facilities. The epidemiology of malaria in the Eastern Province was being explored and a malaria control program was underway.
In a collaborative research project on trachoma was established between Aramco's Medical Department and the Harvard School of Public Health. The same year, similar--though much smaller--facilities were opened looking for hiking sex dhahran maybe camping both Ras Tanura and Abqaiq, and their older units were closed. The Preventive Medicine Division at DHC started a program of tuberculosis case finding and control, maternal-child health clinics had been established, and health education projects were being developed.
InAramco's Medical Department hired its first industrial hygienist, and by had its first occupational health physician. Preventive and curative medicine had entered upon a unique partnership which--together with its projects in medical research--would become the hallmark of Aramco's health care program.
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Despite the fact that Saudi Arabia was changing rapidly from a developing country into a nation which would resemble the technocracies of the West, looking for hiking sex dhahran maybe camping profile of disease was more representative of many third-world countries during the s. And while there was an efflorescence of both private and government health care programs and facilities within the Kingdom, information on health demographics was lacking except as an extrapolation of epidemiologic data gathered by Aramco.
Beginning inthe Saudi government had developed a cooperative malaria surveillance program with Aramco in the Eastern Province. And control measures had started inprimarily through an extensive residual spraying campaign online dating australia free DDT.
There was an immediate and dramatic reduction in the incidence of malaria--both among employees and among villagers in outlying oases which were being monitored with annual malaria surveys. Resistance to DDT was encountered inand Dieldrin was introduced for residual spraying in Bythe Saudi government had taken the initiative for malaria control in the Eastern Province.
And this, together with the more effective Dieldrin spraying, left malaria as a vanishing disease. A program of smallpox eradication had been undertaken in the late s by the Saudi government, and this disease soon disappeared from the Eastern American dating culture.
Tuberculosis remained an endemic problem. But with effective case finding--through x-ray screening and skin testing--early treatment with an arsenal of effective drugs, and meticulous outpatient followup, it appeared that Saudis could expect the same satisfying from independent ladies looking for phone sex treatment as Europeans or Americans.
Although Saudi Arabia's Eastern Province was not an endemic area for schistosomiasis, the disease was rather common among Aramco employees--many of whom had come from the central and western regions of the Kingdom.
In contrast to infected patients from other populations in the Middle East, the majority of Saudis seemed to have mild disease with few symptoms. Ina team from Aramco's Preventive Medicine Division initiated a large-scale epidemiologic survey of looking for hiking sex dhahran maybe camping communities scattered throughout the Kingdom.
What emerged from this investigation was a monograph, published as a limited, paperback edition in It remains unmatched as the most extensive and complete study of its kind ever carried out in Saudi Arabia. Alio, Ivan. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: University Press, Another helminth infection of some importance was ascariasis. Generally regarded as relatively asymptomatic, it can sometimes be complicated by intestinal obstruction because of excessive s of parasites in the gut.
But in Saudi Arabia there was beautiful couple searching real sex olympia washington additional complication: seasonal pneumonitis due to pulmonary larval migration. This was exclusively a disease of Saudis, characteristically occurring each spring, usually several weeks after the brief, annual rainy season.
Transmission was seasonal--limited to women want sex cashton and spring--because of the intense daytime temperatures during the rest of the year, which prevented survival of helminth ova. During the spring months there was also a recurring flu-like illness--Q fever--among Americans and other expatriates living in Aramco communities.
Aramco expats find out what's happening in the world as it unfolds.
What wasn't appreciated at the time was that Q fever is one of the most communicable of all infections--the inhalation of just a few organisms being enough to produce infection, sometimes illness. Which is why the organism, Coxiella burnettihas been considered a candidate for biological warfare. Trachoma was hyperendemic in the oases of Saudi Arabia's Eastern Province, with prevalence as dating needs west dover as 90 percent in some communities.